20150421【警告】美研究:服食過多維他命 不但無益 更會致癌 Ex. 藥品動力學的毒物、抗氧化劑延伸






國人膳食營養素參考攝取量 (DRI)編輯

The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)(from 20160327wikipedia) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).[1]

Vitamins and minerals編輯

EARs, RDA/AIs and ULs for an average healthy 44-year-old male are shown below. Amounts and "ND" status for other age and gender groups, pregnant women, lactating women, and breastfeeding infants may be much different.[2]

• "NE": EARs have not yet been established or not yet evaluated.

• "ND": ULs could not be determined, and it is recommended that intake from these nutrients be from food only, to prevent adverse effects.

Nutrient EAR RDA/AI UL[3] Unit(IU) Top Sources in Common Measures, USDA[4]
Vitamin A 625 900 3000 µg turkey and chicken giblets, liver, red capsicum, carrots, pumpkin, sweet potato
Vitamin C 75 90 2000 mg guavas, oranges, grapefruits, frozen peaches, 模板:Efn-lr bell peppers
Vitamin D[5] 10 15 100 µg (1µg=40IU) fortified cereals, mushrooms, yeast, sockeye salmon, swordfish, rainbow trout, sardines, cod liver oil (also fortified foods and beverages)
Vitamin K NE 120 ND µg kale, collards, spinach, yellow split peas, white beans, green peas, brussel sprouts, prunes, asparagus
Vitamin B6 1.1 1.3 100 mg fortified cereals, chickpeas, sockeye salmon
α-tocopherol (Vitamin E) 12 15 1000 mg fortified cereals, tomato paste, sunflower seeds
Biotin生物素 (B7) NE 30 ND µg whole grains, almonds, peanuts, beef liver, egg yolk, salmon[6]
Calcium[5] 800 1000 2500 mg fortified cereals, collards, almonds, condensed cow's milk, cheese, figs
Chloride NE 2300 3600 mg table salt
Chromium NE 35 ND µg broccoli, turkey ham, tuna, grape juice[7]
Choline NE 550 3500 mg egg yolk, meats, lecithin, beef liver, condensed milk, quinoa, salmon, cod
Copper 700 900 10000 µg sunflower seeds, oysters, lobster, cashews, dark chocolate, pearled barley
Cyanocobalamin (B12) 2.0 2.4 ND µg fortified cereals, turkey, clams, beef, egg yolk, sardines, tuna fish, mackerel
Fluoride NE 4 10 mg public drinking water, where fluoridation is performed or natural fluorides are present
Folate (B9) 320 400 1000 µg leafy greens, enriched white rice, fortified cereals, enriched cornmeal
Iodine 95 150 1100 µg iodized salt, kelp, cod
Iron 6 8 45 mg fortified cereals, turkey, walnuts, dark chocolate, spinach
Magnesium 330 400 350模板:Efn-lr mg buckwheat flour, rolled oats, spinach, almonds, dark chocolate, bulgur, quinoa
Manganese NE 2.3 11 mg oat bran, whole grain wheat flour, bulgur, rolled oats, brown rice, parboiled rice, dark chocolate
Molybdenum 34 45 2000 µg legumes, grain products, green peas, nuts and seeds[8]
Niacin (B3) 12 16 35 mg fortified cereals, yellowfin tuna, sockeye salmon, chicken meat
Pantothenic acid泛酸 (B5) NE 5 ND mg fortified cereals, beef liver, shiitake mushrooms
Phosphorus 580 700 4000 mg cornmeal, condensed milk, wheat flour, rolled oats, brown rice, bulgur, milk, meats
Potassium NE 4700 ND mg potatoes, bananas, tomato paste, tomatoes, orange juice, beet greens, quinoa, rolled oats, bulgur, beans, peas, cashews, pistachio nuts
Riboflavin核黃素 (B2) 1.1 1.3 ND mg almonds, sesame seeds, spaghetti, beef liver, turkey
Selenium 45 55 400 µg Brazil nuts, rockfish, yellowfin tuna, beef, sardines, salmon, egg yolk, pearled barley, mackerel
Sodium NE 1500 2300 mg onion soup mix, miso, table salt, egg whites
Thiamin硫胺素 (B1) 1.0 1.2 ND mg fortified cereals, enriched wheat flour, breadcrumbs
Zinc 9.4 11 40 mg nuts, oysters, fortified cereals, beef, baked beans, oatmeal

EAR: Estimated Average Requirements; RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowances; AI: Adequate Intake; UL: Tolerable upper intake levels. 模板:Notelist-lr

It is also recommended that the following substances not be added to food or dietary supplements. Research has been conducted into adverse effects, but was not conclusive in many cases:

Substance RDA/AI UL units per day
Arsenic ND
Silicon ND
Vanadium 1.8 mg




綜合維生素: 藥品動力學的毒物、抗氧化劑延伸(男生常吃的維生素E和硒:














60歲以上的老人(容易骨質疏鬆症 )編輯



要補充B群、C和D(但是要注意劑量),維生素A的量反而要少。(要注意劑量)(天天吞綜合維他命 小心腎病失控)


  1. 模板:Cite web
  2. 模板:Citation
  3. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Vitamins., Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies, 1997
  4. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, SR23, 2010
  5. 5.0 5.1 模板:Cite book
  6. 模板:Cite web
  7. 模板:Cite web
  8. 模板:Cite web
  9. 2018年02月09日常吃維他命竟對身體有害? 藥師揭「殘酷真相」