鋰鹽（Lithium salt） 主要機轉為抑制PI turnover而降低細胞的興奮性。
- Thiazide diuretics會升高lithium血中濃度。
- 預防Bipolar manic-depressive（兩極性躁鬱症）精神病。
- 原文:Lithium salts are used prophylactically for treating manic-depressive patients and in the treatment of manic episodes. They are also effective in treating sixty to eighty percent of patients exhibiting mania and hypomania.
- The mode of action is unknown. [Note: lithium is believed to attenuate signaling via receptors coupled to the phos-phatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) second messenger system. Lithium interferes with the resynthesis (recycling) of PIP2, leading to its relative depletion in neuronal membranes of the CNS. PIP2 levels in peripheral membranes are unaffected by lithium.]
- Lithium causes no noticeable effect on normal individuals. It is not a sedative, euphoriant, or [The antiepileptic drugs carbamazepine and valproic acid have been shown to alleviate some of the symptoms of mania.]
- Lithium is given orally, and the ion is excreted by the kidney. Lithium salts are very toxic. Their safety factor and therapeutic index are extremely low-comparable to those of digitalis.
- Adverse effects include ataxia, tremors, confusion, and convulsions. Dry mouth, polydipsia, and polyuria are frequent complaints. [Note: The diabetes insipidus that results from taking lithium can be treated with amiloride.]
- Thyroid function may be decreased.